Monday, 19 September 2011

GHARANAS OF TABLA

There are two major playing styles (Baaj) in Tabla – a). Band Baaj & b). Khula Baaj

a. Banda Baaj: ‘Banda’ literary means ‘closed’, so in this style, the resonance or sound from the right side (Daya/Tabla) is controlled or subdued. As the resonance is limited, sound after a stroke vanishes quickly and so, another stroke is made; which culminates into the increase in the speed. In the Banda Baaj, Tabla is more played on Chaati (the border side) and the sound from Baya (Dugga) is also controlled. In short, in the Banda Baaj, the importance is given to sound of Tabla and speedy progrations.
b. Khula Baaj: ‘Khula’ literary means ‘open’. This is exactly opposite to the Banda Baaj. In this style, one can find a clear influence of Pakhawaj, the proto-type of Tabla. The Pakhawaj uses the open, resonant sound with full palm and fingers. In this style, the speed is not given much importance, on the contrary, the tonal richness and resonance is essential. In this style, the Daya (Tabla) is played more on Maidan (the middle portion) with the resonance of Baya (Dugga).

With these two basic styles, later some Gharanas of Tabla were developed, namely Delhi, Lucknow, Ajrada, Farukhabad, Benaras and Punjab. These Gharanas have their own area of expertise as well as commonalities. Many great masters in the last century have contributed in shaping these Gharanas of Tabla.

1. Delhi Gharana: This is the first and fundamental Gharana of Tabla. Ustad Sidhhar Khan Dhadhi was the founder of this Gharana. He was born in circa 1700 and after learning the Pakhawaj, started experimenting on Tabla. He also composed several compositions especially for Tabla playing. He improved the technique of playing on Chaati, glides from Dugga which made the Tabla as a popular accompanying instrument for Khayal singing. As this Gharana gave importance to playing on Chaati with two fingers, it is also called ‘Do Ungaliyon Ka Baaj’. Peshkaar, Kayda, Rela is the specialty of this Gharana. The Kayda played in this Gharana is usually in Chatusra Jaati in which the syllables are ‘Dhit, Kit, tiT, Dhaage, Naage, Kinaa, Tinaa, DhirDhir’. While playing Tabla in speed, the sound is delightful and subtle. This Gharana is famous for solo playing as well as accompaniment. The masters of this Gharana are Sidhhar Khan, Ghasit Khan, Kallu Khan, Munir Khan, Nikhil Ghosh, etc.

2. Lucknow Gharana: The art of solo Tabla playing was born in Delhi, it got popularity quickly in surrounding area and came to the nearby city of Lucknow. By that time, Lucknow was immerging as an abode of music and various artists migrated to Lucknow from Rampur, Jaipur, Delhi, etc. In this city, there were many Thumari singers, Kathak dancers to whom the Pakhawaj was not a suitable percussion instrument and so the Tabla got the special seat. So, Tabla players migrated from Delhi Gharana and changed some playing technique and adapted it for Kathak and Thumari. Asafuddoullah, the Nawab of Lakhnow, gave patronage to the nephews of Ust Sidhhar Khan, Ust Modau khan and Miya Bakshu Khan. They tried to convert the Khula Baaj of Pakhawaj into Tabla and composed many of such compositions with Banda Baaj that would suit Kathak. In this Gharana, the Gat, Paran, Tukda are the major compositions with the syllables such as ‘Tagenna, DhetDhet, KadDhet, Titakit, Dhetta, Dhidnag’. This Gharana is also called ‘Purab Baaj’ or ‘Khula Baaj’. Ust Abid Hussain Khan, Munne Khan, Pandit Biru Mishra were celebrated artists of this Gharana.

3. Ajrada Gharana: There is a small village called Ajrada in Merath district of Uttar Pradesh. Ust Miru Khan and Ust Kallu Khan settled in Ajrada. These two Tabla players were disciples of Sitaab Khan (disciple of Bugra Khan, the son of Sidhhar Khan who was founder of Delhi Gharana), so their basic style was like the Delhi Gharana. Further these two brothers, who were very rigorous in practicing, started improvisation of Aad Laya and syncopation which turned the simple Delhi gharana into a complex and tricky style. They composed Tishra Jaati Kayda and complex Kaydas with the use of syllables such as ‘Ghitak, Dhigan, Tit, Kat’. They also applied the use of third finger, playing on ‘Siyahi’ (the black portion on the centre of Tabla) and technique of ‘Ghissa’ on Dugga. The important artists of this Gharana were Habibuddin Khan and Shamsuddin Khan.

4. Farukhabad Gharana: Ust Haji Vilayat Khan (son in law of Bakshu Khan of Lucknow Gharana) was the founder of this Gharana. Ustad Bakshu Khan gave extensive training to Haji Vilayat Khan and also made him his son in law. At the wedding ceremony, Ustad Bakshu Khan gave nearly 500 compositions of Tabla to Haji Vilayat Khan as gift and these compositions are known as ‘Dahej Gat-s’. Haji Vilayat Khan went back to his hometown, Farukhabad after marriage thus creating the Farukhabad Gharana. Ustad Haji was a great performer, composer as well as teacher. Celebrated Tabla players such as Ahmadjan Thirkawa, Amir Hussain Khan, Lalji Gokhale, Sabir Khan, etc belong to Farukhabad Gharana. The influence of this Gharana is widely spread in Maharashtra, Bengal, Hyderabad, Indore, etc places. One can find blend of open sound like Pakhawaj as in Lakhnow Gharana as well as the speed of Delhi Gharana. Peshkar, Kayda, Rela and Gat-Toda are the specialty of this Gharana. Use of syllables ‘Tak Tak, Dhir Dhir’ is common and ‘Kdaan, Ghidaan, DhiDhir KiTatak, Dhetta, NagaNaga’ are the frequent syllables.

5. Benaras Gharana: This Gharana emerged around 150 years ago and was founded Pandit Raam Sahay, disciple of Ustad Bhodu Khan of Lakhnow Gharana.  Once there was a concert arranged by Asafuddaula, Nawab of Lakhnow, in which the famous dancer Pandit Sharada Sahay was going to perform with his young nephew, Raam Sahay. During the concert Bhodu Khan observed that Raam Sahay was a very keenly interested student of music and had good understanding and concentration. He decided to teach Raam Sahay and gave him all of his knowledge with compassion like his own son. After completing the training for 12 years, he returned to Benaras and started performing with great dynamism. Once an old musician commented that "Thanks to Lucknow Gharana we are fortunate to listen to good Tabla playing". This hearted Raam Sahay and he left Tabla playing for nearly six months after which he developed a new style of his own musing which is well known as ‘Banaras Gharana’. There is a clear impact of Pakhawaj in this Gharana, also the Laggi-Baaj while accompanying with Thumari is a specialty. Tabla is played with four fingers and strokes are given on Chaati as well as Siyahi with equal weight. In this Gharana, unlike other Gharanas, they start with faster compositions. Banaras Gharana has amalgamated the major aesthetic values from other Gharanas, such as Peshkar is from Delhi Gharana and Kayada from Lakhnow Gharana. Tabla players of this Gharana sit in Weeraasan posture while playing with Dugga in the lap and Tabla in front. This combines Khula Baaj and Banda Baaj very effectively with use of ‘DhirDhirKit, DHigDhinaa, DhitKit, GheGhenaga, KataGadigan’ syllables. Playing TeenTaal in superfast tempo is a area of expertise of this Gharana. Most of the followers of Banaras Gharana are Hindu and so they believe that percussion is originated by Lord Shiva and they have composed several ‘Stuti-Paran’, i.e. compositions in the praise of Gods and Goddesses. Major Tabla players of Benaras Gharana are Pandit Raam Sahay, Kanthe Maharaj, Samta Prasad, Kishan Maharaj, etc.

6. Punjab Gharana: This Gharana is born out of Pakhawaj tradition in Punjab and is separated from the influence of Delhi or Lucknow Gharana. The founder of this Gharana, Pandit Lala Bhavani Das Pakhawaji was contemporary to Ustad Sidhhar Khan, founder of Delhi Gharana. He was a fluent Pakhawaj player and was well versed in complex Layakaari (rhythmic designs). This Gharana uses the four fingers efficiently for playing Bandishs, which is one of its fortes. It has an influence of ‘Thapiyaa Baaj’, i.e. use of loud stroke on Daya with full palm of Pakhawaj. Tabla playing in this Gharana is speedy, complex and full of energy and so, it is very attractive and catches the mind of audience promptly. Peshkar is rarely played but Mishra Jati and Khand Jati Kayada and very complicated Bandish-s with frequent syllables such as ‘Dhetta, Dhadanna, TakitTakit, Kradhetta, DhirDhirKat’ are commonly rendered in this Gharana. Ustad Allarakha Khan, Zakir Hussain, Yogesh Samsi are eminent Tabla players of Punjab Gharana.

Sunday, 18 September 2011

NADA : THE BASIC ELEMENT OF MUSIC


Etymologically, 'Na' means breath and 'Da' means fire or energy. Nad is thus a combination of breath and energy. It implies that the sound produced by living beings emanates from the lungs and comes out from the mouth. There are two kinds of nad: Ahat and Anahata..
Ahat nad is a sound produced by the collision of two things or by physical manipulation, as for example cymbals and human voice respectively. In both cases, vibrations produce the sound which dies away as the vibration come to an end. This is the sound with which we are concerned in music.
Anahad nad is a self-producing sound, or what is called "unstruck sound".

There are two tones of nad: karkash (non-musical) and madhur (musical). The sound of the roar of guns or of a lion is harsh and unpleasant, while the sound of the cuckoo is sweet and soothing.
 All musical sounds can be differentiated in three ways:
a) By their magnitude, that loudness of intensity which depends on the energy used for their production,
b) By the pitch depending on the number of vibrations per second: the greater the number of vibrations, the greater the pitch.
c) By the quality or timbre, which depends on the nature of vibration and the reactive prominence of the upperpartials of the instrument

Nad is related to Dhwani (a kind of sound). Music is concerned with sweet and pleasant dhwani. When a stringed instrument is played, vibrations are produced through the movement of the strings, and these vibrations give the sound when they reach the human ears. These vibrations go in cycles and come back, again they go and come back, and hence the sound continues till the stings come to rest. The unit for measurement of sound vibrations is one second.
Vibrations (cycles) ranging from 96 to 1024 per second can be produced by Indian vocal music, while the human ear is capable of picking up sound frequencies between 20 and 20,000 cycles per second.

Thursday, 15 September 2011

MUSICAL EVIDENCE FOUND IN INDIA IN THE CLASSICAL PERIOD(A.D. 100--1200)



 Classical Period (A. D. 100-1200)

The first authentic book on musicology was written in the second century A.D. by Bharata. His work entitled Natya Shastra deals with dance music and drama . He mentions three types of grama (scale), Shajda grama, madhyama grama and gandharva grama. The gandharva includes three categories-sacred music for temples and religious ceremonies, royal music for princely courts, and theatrical music for dramatic performances. He has mentioned the 22 shruties (microtones), swaras (notes), murchana (scales ) and 18 kinds of jatis (ancient melodic schemes).
The period of the Gupta Kings (320-495) was conducive to the development of music. Emperor Samudra Gupta was himself a musician and a parton of arts. His son Chandra Gupta Vikramaditya ( 375-413), patronised group of poet and musicians at his court. Kalidasa, his poet laureate and playwright, made significant contributions to criticism on music, musical instruments and dance in his plays. His masterpiece,Avigyana Shakuntalam, contains one song in sarang(madhyamadi).
  Matanga, a talented musicologist of the sixth century, wrote a comprehensive book on music entitled Brihadeshi. He explained the raga system which was in vogue and was quite developed. He made a distinction between marga and deshi  raga. While marga music is the classical type used for worship and devotion, and deshi music is the secular kind intended to delight the common man. He also furnished the characteristics of many ragas.
The greatest poet and musician of the twelfth century was Jayadeva whose Geet Govinda is well known. He had his disciples danced to his music in their ecstatic devotion to Lord Krishna.

Tuesday, 13 September 2011

CATEGORIES OF MUSIC


Music is generally divided under three categories:

i.)  Classical music (Shastrya Sangeet)
ii.)  Light classical music (Bhav Sangeet)
iii.) Folk music (Deshi Sangeet)

Music which is sung or played according to the rules of the classical ragas in the field notes, rhythm and tempo iscalled classical music.

Light classical music is less pure and less rigid than classical music and does not require the knowledge of classical ragas and rhythms on the part of the audience.In such music there is proper blending of poetry, tune and tempo,but less attention is paid to the purity of the raga and more to the content of the songs.

Folks music is the popular kind of regional music based on simple tunes. It pertains to the events of every-day life. It is generally meant for public entertainment and may be secular or religious.
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Sunday, 11 September 2011

10 THATAS OF HIDUSTANI MUSIC


Thata
Combinatin of Notes
Remarks
Vilabal
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni
All notes are suddha
Kalyan
Sa Re Ga ma Pa Dha Ni
Ma is tibra(Augmented by 1 semitone)
Khamaj
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha ni
Ni is komal (Diminished by 1 semitone)
Kafi
Sa Re ga Ma Pa Dha ni
Ga & Ni komal (Diminished by 1 semitone)
Bhairav
Sa re Ga Ma Pa dha Ni
Re & Dha komal (Diminished by 1 semitone)
Purbi
Sa re Ga ma Pa dha Ni
Re , Dha Komal (Diminished by 1 semitone) & Ma tibra(Augmented by 1 semitone)
Marwa
Sa re Ga ma Pa Dha Ni
Re komal (Diminished by 1 semitone) Ma tibra(Augmented by 1 semitone)
Ashavari
Sa Re ga Ma Pa dha ni
Ga, Dha & Ni komal (Diminished by 1 semitone)
Bahiravee
Sa re ga Ma Pa dha ni
Re ,Ga ,Dha & Ni komal(Diminished by 1 semitone)
Todi
Sa re ga ma Pa dha Ni
Re, Ga, Dha komal(Diminished by 1 semitone) & Ma tibra (Augmented by 1 semitone)

N.B.: In India these 10 Thatas (Main structure for Ragas) are recognized for Hindustani Sangeet. All the 
Ragas derive from these Thatas.

Saturday, 10 September 2011

SAMA GANA: Main Characteristics


The sama gana formed a special feature of the culture of music in the Vedic time. The sama gana was of various types with different numbers of tone in different Vedic recensions and they had different methods of rendering. Usually three ,four or five notes were used in the sama gana but in the Kauthuma recensions, the sama gana was presented  with 7 Vedic notes. The order of the notes  for sama gana were in downward movement ,whereas the modern classical notes are used in the upward movement. The Vedic notes of sama gana were used in three registers (sthanas) like bass (mandra) circumflex or medium (madhya) and high or acute (tara) .The correct intonation of the words (sahitya) as well as the tones (swara) were strictly observed. So we must say that the Vedic songs  sama gana was very systematic. Different sama gana were sung in the sacred occasions to please the God.